quinta-feira, 10 de novembro de 2011

Filosofia Política Clássica vs Moderna VI

fotograma de Barry Lyndon (1975), de Kubrick
It seems proper to me to act towards men as it is written we should act towards hostile beasts and creeping things: it is legal by tradition to kill an enemy in every society in which the laws do not prohibit it; but rites, treaties, and oaths peculiar to each place may prohibit it.

One who kills any highwayman or robber should be immune from punishment, whether he does it by his own hand, by giving an order, or by vote.
κιξάλλην καὶ ληιστὴν πάντα κτείνων τις ἀθῶιος ἂν εἴη καὶ αὐτοχειρίηι καὶ κελεύων καὶ ψήφωι.

Demócrito DK 259 e 260 (= Graham Dmc 368 e 367 [F237 e 238]) 
The Texts of Early Greek Philosophy, Cambridge: 2010 (trad.: Daniel Graham).

And thus it is that every man in the state of Nature has a power to kill a murderer, both to deter others from doing the like injury (which no reparation can compensate) by the example of the punishment that attends it from everybody, and also to secure men from the attempts of a criminal who, having renounced reason, the common rule and measure God hath given to mankind, hath, by the unjust violence and slaughter he hath committed upon one, declared war against all mankind, and therefore may be destroyed as a lion or a tiger, one of those wild savage beasts with whom men can have no society nor security.

John Locke, Segundo Tratado do Governo Civil II.11

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